One of the indicators of biochemical (BAC) and clinical blood analysis is the rate of hemoglobin. This is a complex protein, which is the main component of the erythrocyte.
Its main function is the movement of oxygen throughout the body, delivering it from the lungs to muscle tissues and organs.
Blood saturation of this protein is very important, and in case of deviations requires immediate examination.
Increase or decrease in indicators for women is particularly important, since the rate of hemoglobin in women directly affects the reproductive abilities of the body.
In the presence of ready-made test results for a woman, it should be borne in mind that hemoglobin levels vary according to age, the presence of pregnancy, disease, the effect of certain drugs on deviation levels, as well as other factors that trigger changes in the quantitative indicators of hemoglobin.
A qualified doctor, taking into account all the circumstances in the period of delivery of the analysis, can timely prevent the still not manifest, but already hidden progressive disease.
Hemoglobin is an organic pigment that is characterized by a dark red tint that helps oxygenate cells and also removes carbon dioxide from the body.
Being in the composition of the red blood cell, hemoglobin itself stores two components – Globin (the protein part that is formed during protein synthesis) and heme (with the concentration of iron, is formed from iron produced with food).
For proper gas exchange, You need sufficient iron and vitamins.
Due to the blood entering the lungs, the complex protein and oxygen combine, which forms a common element oxyhemoglobin. The blood filled with oxygen cells acquires a rich bright red color, this blood enters the arteries (arterial).
Upon completion of tissue oxyhemoglobin saturation, it disintegrates, starting back in the red blood cells, and ending in the bone marrow, spleen and liver.
In case of failure of metabolic processes, intoxication is possible, which provokes a slow elimination of carbon dioxide from the body.
Norms for women
After a woman has taken a blood test, you need to initially realize whether the results are normal. You should also consider the physiological factors that may affect the rate of protein.
In case of their obvious deviation, it is necessary to be examined by a doctor.
The average boundaries of hemoglobin levels in women are 120-140 g / l. Performance may be affected by sports (an increase of up to 160), as well as smoking (up to 150), which are not pathological factors, and are recorded as normal deviations.
The boundaries of hemoglobin marks fall during menstruation, and then return to normal as they end. Until the age of twelve, there is no strong difference between female and male hemoglobin.
But with the passage of age, more and more obvious differences occur: both between the sexes and in the age categories of the woman.
How the hemoglobin rate relates to the age of women is given below (Table 1):
The results of this table show that the growth of hemoglobin depends on age. That is why when decoding the results, consider the age, since normal rates for one age category may indicate deviations for another.
Low thresholds for hemoglobin in pregnant women are recorded in the last two trimesters of pregnancy.
What causes low hemoglobin and how can it be detected?
Low levels of hemoglobin in the blood are called iron deficiency anemia or anemia. A qualified doctor with sufficient experience can detect low hemoglobin at the initial examination stage.
Symptomatology occurs when the supply of oxygen to the tissues becomes lower than the required amount.
This is primarily manifested in the deterioration of the teeth, brittle nails, hair becomes dry and brittle, as the body takes oxygen from them, and supplies it to more important organs.
As the hemoglobin level progresses, oxygen deficiency occurs in the brain and in the heart.
When carrying a child, anemia often occurs with the presence of eating disorders. A woman loses the right amount of vitamins and trace elements, which causes iron deficiency anemia.
The main symptoms of low hemoglobin are:
- Sleep disturbance;
- Increased heartbeat;
- Dry and fragile hair;
- Brittle nails;
- Hard breath;
- Dry skin;
- Rapid fatigue, general lethargy;
- Caries, yellowing teeth;
- Feeling of headaches;
- Loss of appetite.
At the first manifestations of a lack of oxygen in the tissues, an urgent need to consult a doctor, because the complete absence of saturation of organs with oxygen leads to the death of their tissues (necrosis). With prolonged absence of treatment, this can lead to serious complications or death.
The following factors can affect the decrease in hemoglobin rate in women:
- Loss of blood by the body. This includes both hidden blood loss (ulcers of the esophagus, polyps in the colon, hemorrhages in hemorrhoids, and others), as well as pronounced (prolonged and heavy periods, bleeding of the uterus, regular donation);
- Red blood cell dying off prematurely. Such conditions provoke diseases of infectious origin (tuberculosis, hepatitis, etc.), or immune system malfunctions (rheumatic diseases, lupus erythematosus, etc.);
- Wrong diet. For the normal formation of hemoglobin, the amount of iron it needs should be supplied to the woman’s body (since hemoglobin is formed from iron and protein). Women on diets, and observant vegetarian get iron in smaller quantities, and iron from plants is absorbed by the body much slower. Products such as coffee, tea, cereal, chocolate, and slow down the absorption of iron;
- Hypothyroidism. Hemoglobin deficiency can result in a deficiency of thyroxine (thyroid hormone). It is responsible for the absorption of iron by the body, and when it fails, causes abnormalities;
- Insufficient intake of vitamins B12 and C, as well as folic acid. These substances are necessary for the synthesis of hemoglobin and red blood cells. Lack of vitamin B12 is mainly triggered by helminthic invasion (diseases caused by parasitic worms), while the lack of the other two provokes an unhealthy diet;
- Passive lifestyle. Physical activity is one of the main factors that influence the formation of red blood cells. In the case of immobility, the blood slightly accelerates throughout the body, and it ceases to synthesize new red blood cells;
- Pathology of the digestive system. Iron is almost not absorbed by the thinning of the intestinal mucosa, to which gastritis and stomach ulcers attract;
- Stressful situations. With severe stress and nervous breakdowns, appetite disturbances are possible, which will lead to inadequate intake of iron by the body.
When does hemoglobin increase and how to determine it?
During an increase in the hemoglobin rate in the blood, there is an increase in blood viscosity, which makes it difficult to take it for analysis. The reasons for this can serve as a variety of diseases and pathologies, and physiological factors.
The main danger of prolonged thickening of the blood is the slowing down of blood circulation, which leads to its stagnation and slow delivery of oxygen to the organs.
Also one of the serious complications can be thromboembolism (closure of blood vessels with blood clots).
If you find one of the following symptoms, you need to go to a qualified doctor.
- Blue fingers on the upper and lower limbs;
- Pallor of the skin;
- Constant desire to sleep;
- Loss of appetite;
- Blurred vision;
- Low endurance;
- Quick irritability.
Increased hemoglobin in women may be provoked by prolonged physical exertion, or being high above sea level (high mountains).
At such moments A woman’s body is experiencing a lack of oxygen, and is trying to equalize it with a large number of red blood cells produced. In such cases, deviations up to 20 g / l are minor and do not require medical assistance.
Among other reasons that increase the level of this protein in the blood, the following:
- Excessive glucose concentration in diabetes;
- Bowel problems;
- The high content of vitamins B12 and B9;
- Blood clots;
- Hemoglobinemia (increased plasma hemoglobin concentration);
- Erythrocytosis (increased serum hemoglobin concentration);
- Heart and vascular insufficiency.
Prolonged maintenance of high hemoglobin levels may lead to serious complications, including:
- Insufficiency of the lungs and heart;
- Obstruction of the intestinal tract;
- Congenital heart defect;
- and other pathologies.
False readings of increased hemoglobin concentration during dehydration are also possible, and they will return to the normal range after sufficient water intake.
When the hemoglobin level rises, the woman should go to the doctor for examination, and further additional research.
It is known that in women after 50 years, various hormonal changes begin, which contribute to the emergence of many diseases.
The main reasons why complex protein grows at this age are:
- Wrong diet. It is recommended to use more foods of plant origin, since cholesterol causes the blood to thicken;
- Hormonal medication;
- Diabetes. With a decrease in activity, as well as climate change, the level of glucose absorption decreases, which leads to its connection with hemoglobin;
- Cancer tumors. When menopause in women, their immunity decreases, which leads to the entry of toxins into the tissues of the organs, which begin to receive less of the necessary amount of oxygen. Possible formation of malignant tumor formations, leading to intoxication;
- Heart pathology. When hormonal changes occur, the quantitative indicator of sex hormones decreases, which leads to the deposition of cholesterol. Inflammation of the walls of blood vessels, and the violation of the heart rhythm;
- Insufficient water consumption. During menopause, sweating increases, which leads to a decrease in the body’s water balance. More clean water should be consumed;
- Nervous disorders. Changes in hormonal levels increase anxiety and tension, as a result of which more depressions, breakdowns and emotionally unstable situations occur.
During pregnancy, the mother’s body suffers many changes, among which are deviations of the hemoglobin rate.
Changes occur depending on the trimester:
- In the first trimester pregnancy rate is within the standard norms of hemoglobin in a healthy woman, from 110 to 160 g / l;
- Second trimester figures fall slightly, setting at 105-145 g / l. This happens due to an increase in blood circulating in the body, which makes it more fluid;
- In the third trimester, indicators of the norm in women are at the level of 100-140 g / l. This trimester is the most difficult of all.
For women carrying a child, there are three degrees of anemia according to severity. So, at the extreme, severe stage, the level of complex protein in women can be reduced to 70 g / l.
This implies that the expectant mother needs urgent help from doctors, otherwise it may lead to the following processes:
- Care should be taken to reduce the complex protein.
Asphyxia in the infant;
Normal indicators for the lower level of complex protein in pregnant women are shown in the table below (Table 2):